Integrated Circuits:- An integrated circuit (IC) is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material. The first integrated
circuit was developed in the 1950s by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild
Integrated circuits are used for a variety of devices, including microprocessors, audio and video equipment, and
automobiles. Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic
Depending upon number of components integrated together, ICs are of following kinds:
SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip.
MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip.
LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip.
VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip.
ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip.