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Binary addition or subtraction is carried out as a very basic practice of Half Adders and Full Adders. Further since we know that subtraction is nothing but a complemented addition, we can use the methods of addition for subtractions as well.

The following figure shows the interrelationships of addition and subtraction methods-

Here it must be kept in mind that the –ve numbers will always be in 2’s complement form and to avoid the error caused by overflow during addition operations, registers should be taken of sufficiently larger sizes.

Depending upon number of components integrated together, ICs are of following kinds: